Sadness vs. Depression: What's the Difference?
Friday, April 19 2013 Natalie Jeanne Champagne
When you live with a mental illness you understand depression. You know how much depression hurts, the damage it can cause, and the fear that results from it. But it can be hard to distinguish a state of sadness from that of depression. And it be scary not knowing if you may be experiencing a depression relapse or, with any luck, just feeling plain sad.
Sadness may be a simple emotion, perhaps, but not when you live with depression. Not when every tear that falls makes you fear that the road to recovery you carefully walk will crumble at your feet. Depression a feeling of powerlessness, to say the least.
What Is Sadness?
Sadness is different. Sadness is often related to circumstance. For example, the end of a relationship, stress at work or home, and even things we cannot define. Sadness is human and sadness still hurts--but, I timidly argue, sadness does not hurt like depression.
First, let's refer to Wikipedia in a vague attempt to define sadness.
Sadness is a severe pain related to being sorrow, feeling alone and helpless, which results from negative outcomes. . .Sadness can be viewed as a temporary lowering of mood, whereas depression is more chronic.
This is better than I thought it would be, though I associate the phrase severe depression to less aptly define sadness, more so to define depression. I certainly cannot minimize sadness. I cannot define it just for myself; each of us experiences sadness differently.
That being said, I think the key phrase here is: "Sadness can be viewed as a temporary lowering of mood, whereas depression is more chronic."
Alright, how is depression different?
What Is Depression?
Wikipedia provides its inquisitive readers with this information:
Depression is a state of low mood . . . Depressed people may feel sad, anxious, empty, hopeless, worried, helpless, worthless, guilty, irritable, hurt, or restless. They may lose interest in activities that once were pleasurable, experience loss of appetite or overeating, have problems concentrating, remembering details, or making decisions, and may contemplate or attempt suicide. Insomnia, excessive sleeping, fatigue, loss of energy, or aches, pains, or digestive problems that are resistant to treatment may also be present.
My sincere apologies on this being excessively wordy. I tried to eliminate parts of it but all of those words apply to a state of depression and many of them differ from that of sadness.
How Do We Tell The Difference Between Sadness and Depression?
I say farewell to Wikipedia for this bit. I think we have enough adjectives at our disposal. I'm going to narrow it down.
- Sadness is a temporary state and comes and goes as negative situations also come and go. Depression is marked by persistent sadness that lasts longer than 2 weeks, but that's only one depression symptom (What Are the Symptoms of Depression). Depression requires assistance, medication and support. Depression can be chronic in nature. Sadness repeats itself throughout life, but there are spans of different emotion between episodes of sadness.
- Sadness is often connected to a life change, something negative, but depression can relapse at any time with no discernible reason.
- Sadness is usually without feelings of suicide; depression can be accompanied by suicidal ideation.
- Sadness can make a person take less care of themselves, but depression dramatically impacts energy, sleep, appetite and general well being making it very difficult to care for yourself, about yourself, or about much else in life for an extended period of time.
The important thing to remember is that when you live with depression, feeling sad can indicate a negative mood change, a sign of an impending depressive episode. More often than not, sadness is just sadness. Regardless of whether it's sadness or depression, check in with family and friends and our psychiatric team to rule out depression relapse. Reaching out is part of self-care.