Videos on Bipolar Disorder and Sleep Problems from Real People

Watch Videos from Real People with Bipolar Disorder and Sleep Problems

APA Reference
Writer, H. (2019, September 8). Videos on Bipolar Disorder and Sleep Problems from Real People, HealthyPlace. Retrieved on 2019, September 20 from https://www.healthyplace.com/other-info/sleep-disorders/videos-on-bipolar-disorder-and-sleep-problems-from-real-people

Last Updated: September 18, 2019

References for Psychiatric Medication and Sleep Problems

i Schimelpfening, Nancy Antidepressants Linked to Sleep Disorder About.com. March 20, 2007. http://depression.about.com/b/2007/03/20/antidepressants-linked-to-sleep-disorder.htm

ii No author listed Tricyclic antidepressants for panic disorder WebMD. Accessed Sep. 1, 2010. http://www.webmd.com/anxiety-panic/tricyclic-antidepressants-for-panic-disorder

iii Wiegand M, Berger M. Action of trimipramine on sleep and pituitary hormone secretion Drugs. 1989;38 Suppl 1:35-42; discussion 49-50. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2612388

iv Cohen, Robert M., Pickar, David, Garnett, Debra, Lipper, Steven, Gillin , J. Christian, Murphy, Dennis L. REM sleep suppression induced by selective monoamine oxidase inhibitorsPsychopharmacology. Volume 78, Number 2, 137-140, DOI: 10.1007/BF00432251 .

v Thase ME Depression, sleep, and antidepressants. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 1998;59 Suppl 4:55-65. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9554322

vi Friston, K. J., Sharpley, A. L., Solomon , R. A., Cowen, P. J. Lithium increases slow wave sleep: possible mediation by brain 5-HT2 receptors?Psychopharmacology. Volume 98, Number 1, 139-140, DOI: 10.1007/BF00442020 http://www.springerlink.com/content/hlm467q40743r821/

vii Phelps, Jim M.D., Mood Stabilizers: An Updated List and LinksPsycheducation.org. Jan. 2009. http://psycheducation.org/depression/meds/moodstabilizers.htm

viii Ayala-Guerrero F, Mexicano G, González V, Hernandez M., Effect of oxcarbazepine on sleep architectureEpilepsy Behavior. 2009 Jul;15(3):287-90. Epub 2009 May 12. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19379835

ix Chouinard G (2004). Issues in the clinical use of benzodiazepines: potency, withdrawal, and rebound Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 65 (Suppl 5): 7-12. PMID 15078112. http://psychiatrist.com/supplenet/v65s05/v65s0502.pdf.

x Stoschitzky K, Sakotnik A, Lercher P, et al. (1999). Influence of beta-blockers on melatonin release European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 55 (2): 111-5. doi:10.1007/s002280050604.

xi Risperdal Prescribing Information Accessed Sep. 2, 2010 http://www.rxlist.com/risperdal-drug.htm

APA Reference
Tracy, N. (2019, September 8). References for Psychiatric Medication and Sleep Problems, HealthyPlace. Retrieved on 2019, September 20 from https://www.healthyplace.com/other-info/sleep-disorders/references-for-psychiatric-medication-and-sleep-problems

Last Updated: September 18, 2019

Is Psychiatric Medication Affecting Your Sleep?

What To Do If Your Antidepressant, Antipsychotic, Anti-anxiety, Mood Stabilizer Medication Is Causing Sleep Problems

The first thing to do if you suspect your psychiatric medication is affecting your sleep is to talk to your doctor. Your doctor can advise you on the best course of action for you; whether it is medication or lifestyle changes.

Creating positive sleep habits and routines helps many sleep problems, even sleep disturbances caused by psychiatric medications. Going to bed at the same time every night, not napping during the day and waking up at the same time every morning are just some of the ways sleep can be encouraged naturally. Note that no over-the-counter supplement or drug should be used without consulting your doctor.

If improving sleep habits doesn't help, your doctor will have medical options for you based on your treatment. Some things your doctor may consider:

  1. Changing the time of day you take your medication. Taking it first thing in the morning, if the medication is promoting wakefulness, or just before bed, if the medication is making you tired, may prevent sleep disruption.
  2. The doctor may choose to add an antidepressant or antipsychotic, depending on the situation. Sometimes these medications are used as they can help the underlying disorder as well as any sleep disturbance.
  3. The doctor may add a tranquilizer or sleeping pill to take before bed.

Click here for endnotes

APA Reference
Tracy, N. (2019, September 8). Is Psychiatric Medication Affecting Your Sleep?, HealthyPlace. Retrieved on 2019, September 20 from https://www.healthyplace.com/other-info/sleep-disorders/is-psychiatric-medication-affecting-your-sleep

Last Updated: September 18, 2019

Antipsychotic Medications and Sleep

Low doses of antipsychotic medications are prescribed to treat sleep disorders like insomnia. Read more about antipsychotic medications and sleep disorders.

Antipsychotics are also known as major tranquilizers and are sometimes used to treat sleep disorders due to their sedating effects. How sedating an antipsychotic is depends on dose and type.

Typical Antipsychotics

Most typical, or first-generation, antipsychotics have sedating effects. Typical antipsychotic medications also tend to decrease muscular actions created by psychiatric disorders, like anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder, which also may improve sleep. Sleep cycles, including REM-sleep, are not altered by antipsychotics, although total sleep time may increase. Tolerance to the sedating effect of these drugs may develop during treatment.

Examples of typical antipsychotics include:

Atypical Antipsychotics

The atypical, or second generation, antipsychotics are less prone to inducing sedation although some atypical antipsychotic drugs are still associated with extreme tiredness and may shift sleep patterns. Tolerance to the sedating effect of these drugs may develop during treatment and withdrawal may result in insomnia.

Commonly prescribed atypical antipsychotics include:

  • Quetiapine (Seroquel) - known for extreme sedation and sometimes prescribed for anxiety or sleep disorders
  • Olanzapine (Zyprexa) - sedation is a common side effect
  • Aripiprazole (Abilify) - sedation is a common side effect
  • Risperidone (Risperdal) - has been known to cause both tiredness and insomnia depending on the individual. People taking Risperidone for schizophrenia more commonly experience insomnia, while those taking it for bipolar mania are more likely to experience tiredness.xi

Click here for endnotes

APA Reference
Tracy, N. (2019, September 8). Antipsychotic Medications and Sleep, HealthyPlace. Retrieved on 2019, September 20 from https://www.healthyplace.com/other-info/sleep-disorders/antipsychotics-and-sleep

Last Updated: September 18, 2019

Anxiety Medications Induce Sleep

Most antianxiety medications cause drowsiness, while other anxiety medications may produce insomnia. Learn more about anxiety medications and sleep.

Anxiety medications run the gamut from anti-anxiety drugs, to sedative-hypnotics, to antidepressants and beta-blockers. Most anti-anxiety medications will help with getting to sleep.

Anti-anxiety Drugs

Most of these drugs are considered light tranquilizers or sedatives. These medications relax the body and some are even specifically used to treat insomnia. It should be noted that some sedative drugs may cause rebound insomnia and an increase in anxiety during withdrawal.ix

Common medications include:

Sedative-hypnotics

The primary use of these drugs is to induce sleep and so these drugs are often used to treat insomnia. Common examples include:

Beta-Blockers

Beta-blockers are not known to be sedating and may have insomnia as a side-effect as they decrease the melatonin released in the brain.x Beta-blockers include drugs like Atenolol (Tenormin).

Click here for endnotes

APA Reference
Tracy, N. (2019, September 8). Anxiety Medications Induce Sleep, HealthyPlace. Retrieved on 2019, September 20 from https://www.healthyplace.com/other-info/sleep-disorders/anxiety-medications-induce-sleep

Last Updated: September 18, 2019

Impact of Mood Stabilizers on Sleep

Learn how different mood stabilizers can impact sleep. Covers lithium, Depakote, Lamictal, Tegretol used as mood stabilizers for bipolar disorder.

Mood stabilizers, the most well-known being lithium, are most commonly prescribed for bipolar disorder. Some anticonvulsants, which are typically prescribed to prevent seizures in epileptics, are also considered to be mood stabilizers. Their effect on sleep varies.

Lithium

Lithium is a chemical ion that is combined with other elements to produce a mood-stabilizer like lithium carbonate. There are several formulations of lithium but all are commonly referred to as simply lithium.

Drowsiness is a common side-effect of lithium which may be worsened by fatigue, another common side-effect. Lithium has also been shown to increase stage 3 sleep (the deepest stage) and may increase overall sleep time.vi

Anticonvulsants

Anticonvulsants vary in formulation and some have been known to improve sleep, while others may degrade sleep quality. As these medications are prescribed for many disorders, reactions to them tend to vary. Frequently used anticonvulsants include:

Click here for endnotes

APA Reference
Tracy, N. (2019, September 8). Impact of Mood Stabilizers on Sleep, HealthyPlace. Retrieved on 2019, September 20 from https://www.healthyplace.com/other-info/sleep-disorders/impact-of-mood-stabilizers-on-sleep

Last Updated: September 18, 2019

Psychiatric Medication and Sleep Problems

Discover how psychiatric medications can cause sleep disorders, sleep problems and treatment for these sleep problems. Includes all types of antidepressants and sleep disturbances.

Introduction

Psychiatric medications are commonly associated with sleep disturbances. This runs the gamut from affecting dreams, increasing sleep time, encouraging sleep or creating insomnia. The type of effect is primarily related to the type of medication but is sometimes drug-specific.

Antidepressants and Sleep

Antidepressants are most commonly prescribed for depression but may be prescribed for other illnesses such as bipolar or anxiety disorder. Both the underlying disorder and the antidepressants themselves can impact sleep. Most antidepressants are known to negatively impact a natural sleep rhythm, although some are known to improve it.

Antidepressants are grouped into four major types:

SSRIs and Sleep

SSRIs are known to profoundly suppress the rapid-eye-movement (REM) stage of sleep, which is where dreams occur. This can lead to daytime fatigue. SSRIs may also be linked to REM sleep behavior disorder.i RBD occurs when you act out vivid dreams as you sleep. It is often found along with other sleep disorders, such as sleep apnea, periodic limb movement disorder, and narcolepsy, all of which may cause daytime sleepiness.

Tricyclic Antidepressants and Sleep

Most tricyclic antidepressants cause drowsiness ii and are known to drastically reduce REM stage sleep. Trimipramine is the one exception and can be used to treat insomnia without changing the normal sleep cycle and perhaps even improve REM stage sleep.

MAOIs

MAOIs suppress REM stage sleep almost completely and can sometimes cause insomnia. Abrupt discontinuation of MAOIs can cause a temporary phenomenon known as REM rebound, wherein a person experiences extremely vivid dreams or nightmares.iv

Other Antidepressants and Sleep

While SSRIs, TCAs and MAOIs are the largest classes of antidepressants, there are many other smaller classes that work on other neurotransmitters in the brain. There are several of these antidepressants known not to adversely affect sleep:

  • Mirtazapine: an antidepressant that affects serotonin. It is one of the few antidepressants that does not affect REM stage sleep and is sometimes prescribed as a sleep-aid.
  • Trazodone: a medication that boosts serotonin. It is commonly prescribed to treat insomnia.
  • Bupropion: a medication known to work on several neurotransmitters. It is thought to increase or intensify REM-stage sleep.v
  • Nefazodone:1 a medication known to work on several neurotransmitters. It does not adversely affect REM-stage sleep.iii

Click here for endnotes

References:

1Serzone, the brand label for nefazodone, was pulled off the market in the US in 2004 and has been banned in several countries due to concerns over liver damage and possible liver failure. This medication is still available in US in generic form. Patients are advised to discuss risks with their doctor and may wish to do regular liver enzyme tests while on the medication.

APA Reference
Tracy, N. (2019, September 8). Psychiatric Medication and Sleep Problems, HealthyPlace. Retrieved on 2019, September 20 from https://www.healthyplace.com/other-info/sleep-disorders/psychiatric-medication-and-sleep-problems

Last Updated: September 18, 2019

References to Sleep Disorders and Mental Health

1Lerche Davis, Jeanie, MD. The Toll of Sleep Loss in America WebMD Aug. 2, 2010. http://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/guide/toll-of-sleep-loss-in-america

2Ross, Jerilyn M.A., L.I.C.S.W. The Link Between Anxiety and Sleep Disorders HealthCentral. Jan. 5, 2009 http://www.healthcentral.com/anxiety/c/33722/54537/anxiety-disorders

3Peters, Brandon M.D. Insomnia May Identify Teens at Risk for Early Adult Depression and Substance Abuse About.com. http://sleepdisorders.about.com/b/2008/10/12/insomnia-may-identify-teens-at-risk-for-early-adult-depression-and-substance-abuse.htm

4Hitti, Miranda Sleep Breathing Holds Depression Clues WebMD. Sept. 21, 2006 http://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/news/20060921/sleep-breathing-holds-depression-clues

5Roane, Brandy M. MS, Taylor, Daniel J. PhD Adolescent Insomnia as a Risk Factor for Early Adult Depression and Substance Abuse Sleep. Vol. 31, No. 10, 2008. http://www.journalsleep.org/Articles/311004.pdf

6Purse, Marcia Mood Disorders and Sleep About.com. June 20, 2006 http://bipolar.about.com/cs/sleep/a/0002_mood_sleep.htm

APA Reference
Tracy, N. (2019, September 8). References to Sleep Disorders and Mental Health, HealthyPlace. Retrieved on 2019, September 20 from https://www.healthyplace.com/other-info/sleep-disorders/references-to-sleep-disorders-and-mental-health

Last Updated: September 18, 2019

Sleep Disorders and Mental Health

Did you know sleep disorders can be symptoms of mental illness or cause mental illness? Plus sleep disorders have an impact on existing mental illness. Learn more.

Most people know that getting restful sleep every night is important and that getting eight hours of sleep is ideal. What most people don't know is the effect sleep has on mental health.

While sleep disorders are common, with almost 70% of Americans admitting to frequent sleep problems, most people don't realize that sleep disorders can indicate, or even cause, mental illness.

Sleep Disorders Can Be Symptoms of Mental Illness

Neuroscience isn't clear on the exact link between mental health and sleep, but sleep disorders have long been indicators of conditions like depression and anxiety. When a mental health exam is conducted, questions about sleep times, durations and habits are asked due to the prevalence of disordered sleep accompanying mental illness. Sleep disorders are thought to be a symptom of:

Can Sleep Disorders Cause Mental Illness?

While these psychiatric illnesses are thought to cause sleep disorders, research now suggests that the reverse is also true: sleep disorders can cause mental illness.

  • People with sleep-related breathing disorders, such as sleep apnea, have been found to be between 60% and 260% more likely to develop depression, with the severity of the breathing disorder correlating to the likelihood of depression.
  • People with chronic insomnia have been found to be more likely to develop major depression, anxiety disorders and substance abuse issues and to die by suicide.

Additionally, a recent study in the journal Sleep found insomnia in teenagers to be a predictor of depression later in life. Teens with insomnia were 2.3 times more likely to develop depression in early adulthood. Moreover, the same study found that not only were sleep disorders predictive of future mental illness, but they were also predictors of illness severity.

Affect of Sleep Disorders on Existing Mental Illness

Sleep disorders are also known to exacerbate the symptoms of mental illness. A lack of sleep is thought to stimulate the part of the brain most closely linked with depression, anxiety and other mental illnesses.

A lack of sleep has also been shown to precipitate illness features, like mania in bipolar disorder. Studies have found that 25% to 65% of manic episodes were closely preceded by a sleep cycle disruption. This disruption could be as simple as staying up late to watch a good movie. Once a person has entered a manic phase, they are less likely to feel the need for sleep, further fueling their mania.

A similar effect is seen in anxiety disorders where a lack of sleep increases anxiety, making it more difficult for the individual to sleep the following night.

Treating Mental Illness and Sleep Disorders

Because mental illness and sleep disorders are so closely linked, experts recommend ensuring both are assessed and treated promptly and suggest patients develop good sleep habits to promote healthy sleep. Patients and their families are also encouraged to watch for signs of sleep disruption, as they could be predictors of worsening mental health.

References for the Sleep Disorders and Mental Health section

APA Reference
Tracy, N. (2019, September 8). Sleep Disorders and Mental Health, HealthyPlace. Retrieved on 2019, September 20 from https://www.healthyplace.com/other-info/sleep-disorders/sleep-disorders-and-mental-health

Last Updated: September 18, 2019

How to Develop Good Sleep Habits

Discover importance of good sleep habits. How to overcome bad sleep habits which can wreck your sleep cycle and lead to sleep problems, sleep disorders.

Discover the importance of good sleep habits. How to overcome bad sleep habits which can wreck your sleep cycle and lead to sleep problems, sleep disorders.

Sleep disorders are common in part due to the prevalence of bad sleep habits. Breaking these bad sleep habits and creating good sleep habits and routines can improve many sleep disorders or prevent them from occurring in the first place.

Good Sleep Habits Require Consistency

While many people enjoy hitting the snooze button or sleeping in on weekends, these aren't the best habits for sleep. Your body needs to be "trained" to keep a consistent sleep cycle, and each time you diverge from this cycle, the more likely your sleep will become disordered. By going to bed at the same time every night and waking up the same time every day, you are reinforcing a correctly structured pattern of sleep (sleep pattern) and reducing the likelihood of sleep problems.

The sleep environment is also key in helping to reinforce the sleep cycle. Your bedroom should be kept quiet, dark, cool and comfortable for the best possible sleep. The bedroom should also be used exclusively for sleep or sex and not for other activities like watching TV or working. Entering your bedroom should be a signal to your body that you are about to go to sleep. Doing other activities in the bedroom can activate your brain and make it more difficult to fall asleep.

More Steps to Improve Your Sleep:10

  • Avoid any drug like caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine 4-6 hours before bedtime
  • Don't nap - it can interrupt the sleep-wake cycle
  • Exercise, but not 4 hours or less before bedtime
  • Avoid eating or drinking a few hours before bedtime
  • Make sleep a priority! Don't sacrifice sleep if at all possible.
  • If you've been in bed and unable to sleep for fifteen minutes, get up and do something quiet until you're tired enough to sleep. Then return to the bedroom to go to sleep.
  • Cover the time on your alarm clock as clockwatching adds to stress

References

APA Reference
Tracy, N. (2019, September 8). How to Develop Good Sleep Habits, HealthyPlace. Retrieved on 2019, September 20 from https://www.healthyplace.com/other-info/sleep-disorders/develop-good-sleep-habits

Last Updated: September 19, 2019