John Nash's Genius Is Extraordinary. Recovering From Schizophrenia Is Anything But.
The end of "A Beautiful Mind," the Oscar-nominated movie based loosely on the life of Nobel Prize winner John Forbes Nash Jr., depicts the Princeton mathematician's emergence from the stranglehold of paranoid schizophrenia, the most feared and disabling of mental illnesses. Moviegoers who have watched the cinematic metamorphosis of actor Russell Crowe from the disheveled genius who furiously covers his office walls with delusional scribblings to the silver-haired academic perfectly at home in the rarefied company of fellow laureates in Stockholm might assume that Nash's recovery from three decades of psychosis is unique.
But mental health experts say that while Nash's life is undeniably remarkable, his gradual recovery from schizophrenia is not.
That contention is likely to surprise many people, including some psychiatrists, who continue to believe the theory, promulgated a century ago by Sigmund Freud and his contemporaries, that the serious thought and mood disorder is a relentless, degenerative illness that robs victims of social and intellectual function, invariably dooming them to a miserable life in a homeless shelter, a prison cell or, at best, a group home.
Schizophrenia Recovery Not That Unusual
Psychiatric researchers who have tracked patients after they left mental hospitals, as well as a growing number of recovered patients who have banded together to form a mental health consumer movement, contend that recovery of the kind Nash experienced is not rare.
"The stereotype everyone has of this disease is that there's no such thing as recovery," said Washington psychiatrist E. Fuller Torrey, who has written extensively about schizophrenia, an illness he has studied for decades and one that has afflicted his younger sister for nearly half a century. "The fact is that recovery is more common than people have been led to believe. . . . But I don't think any of us know for sure how many people recover." (See also: Why Schizophrenia Patients Are Difficult to Treat.)
The notion that Nash's recovery is exceptional "is very pervasive even though the facts don't support it, because that's what generations of psychiatrists have been taught," said Daniel B. Fisher, a board-certified Massachusetts psychiatrist and activist who has fully recovered from schizophrenia for which he was hospitalized three times between the ages of 25 and 30.
"Many of us who have spoken about our recovery are confronted with the statement that you couldn't have been schizophrenic, you must have been misdiagnosed," added Fisher, 58, who holds a PhD in biochemistry and went to medical school after his hospitalizations.
The belief that recovery from schizophrenia occurs only occasionally is belied by at least seven studies of patients who were followed for more than 20 years after their discharge from mental hospitals in the United States, Western Europe and Japan. In papers published between 1972 and 1995, researchers found that between 46 and 68 percent of patients had either fully recovered they had no symptoms of mental illness, took no psychiatric medication, worked and had normal relationships or were, like John Nash, significantly improved but impaired in one area of functioning.
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Although the patients received a variety of treatments, researchers speculate that the improvement may reflect both an ability to manage illness that accompanies age coupled with the natural decline, beginning in the mid-forties, in the levels of brain chemicals that may be linked to schizophrenia.
"One reason nobody knows about recovery is that most folks don't tell anybody because the stigma is too great," said Frederick J. Frese III, 61, who was hospitalized 10 times for paranoid schizophrenia in his twenties and thirties.
Despite his illness, Frese, who considers himself "definitely not fully recovered but in pretty good shape," earned a doctorate in psychology and was, for 15 years, director of psychology at Western Reserve Psychiatric Hospital in Ohio, the state's largest mental hospital. Frese holds faculty appointments at Case Western Reserve University and Northern Ohio Universities College of Medicine.
He has been married for 25 years and is the father of four children as well as past president of the National Mental Health Consumers Association. These achievements are hardly consistent with the prognosis Frese was given at 27, when a psychiatrist told him he had a "degenerative brain disorder" and would probably spend the rest of his life in the state mental hospital to which he had recently been committed.
Not Everybody Recovers From Schizophrenia
No mental health expert nor any of the eight recovered schizophrenia patients interviewed for this story would suggest that recovery or even marked improvement is possible for all the 2.2 million Americans afflicted with the confounding illness that typically strikes in late adolescence or early adulthood.
Sometimes schizophrenia, which is believed to result from an elusive combination of biological and environmental factors, is simply too severe. In other cases medications have little or no effect, leaving people vulnerable to suicide, which claims more than 10 percent of those diagnosed, according to epidemiological studies.
For others, mental illness is complicated by other serious problems: substance abuse, homelessness, poverty and an increasingly dysfunctional mental health system that favors 10-minute monthly medication checks, which are covered by insurance, over more effective but time-consuming forms of support, which are not.
The improvement seen in many schizophrenia patients as they reach their fifties and sixties generally affects only the most acute psychotic symptoms such as vivid hallucinations and imaginary voices. Patients rarely revert spontaneously to the way they were before they got sick, experts say, and many in whom the disease burns out are left with the emotional flatness and extreme apathy that also characterize schizophrenia.
While a growing number of mental health workers agree that recovery occurs, there is no consensus on how to define or measure it. Academic researchers typically adhere to a strict definition of recovery as a return to normal functioning without reliance on psychiatric drugs. Others, many of them ex-patients, embrace a more elastic definition that would encompass people like Fred Frese and John Nash, who continue to have symptoms they have learned to manage.
"I'd say there's a gradation of severity of illness and a gradation of recovery," said Francine Cournos, a professor of psychiatry at Columbia University who directs a clinic in Manhattan for people with severe mental illness. "The number of people who wind up completely symptom-free and without relapse is probably small. But everyone we treat we can help."