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Some people are chronically suicidal. What causes that and is psychotherapy effective in treating the chronically suicidal person?

Some people are chronically suicidal. What causes that and is psychotherapy effective in treating the chronically suicidal person?The benefits of psychotherapy in treating the chronically suicidal patient, as well as strategies that can help the potential suicide patient imagine and reflect others' reactions to this most final of acts, was the subject of a conference by Glen O. Gabbard, M.D., at the 11th Annual U.S. Psychiatric & Mental Health Congress. Gabbard is the Bessie Callaway Distinguished Professor of Psychoanalysis and Education at the Karl Menninger School of Psychiatry and Mental Health Sciences.

Based on previous research and his own experiences as a psychotherapist, Gabbard has found that in some patients, especially those diagnosed with borderline personality disorder, the ability to imagine other people's feelings and reactions to their suicide is impaired.

Gabbard said that physicians should enter into their patient's suicidal fantasies instead of avoiding the subject due to clinician discomfort or the usually incorrect assumption that patients will become more suicidal as a result of an open dialogue. In turn, he commented, this will enable patients to understand the consequences of their suicide. Gabbard also recommends that physicians facilitate a detailed elaboration of the borderline patient's fantasies about what happens after the suicide is completed. "This frequently leads to a recognition that the patient is not adequately imagining the reaction of others to his or her [own] suicide," he said.

Development of Mentalization

"Part of the borderline patient's psychopathology is a kind of absorption in a very limited, narrow view of their own suffering, where the subjectivity of others is completely disregarded. They often have a very poor sense of subjectivity regarding other people," Gabbard explained. "To a large extent there is an incapacity to imagine another person's internal role or their own internal role. So they are very much out of touch with inner life."

Mentalization and reflective functions are often used in very similar ways, said Gabbard, and involve the theory of mind, which is the capacity of a person to think of things as motivated by feelings, desires and wishes. In other words, he noted, "you're not just the sum total of your brain chemistry."

"If things go well," Gabbard continued, "mentalization will develop after the age of 3. Before the age of 3, you have what's called psyche equivalence mode, where ideas and perceptions are not found to be representations, but rather accurate replicas of reality. In other words, a little kid will say, 'The way I see things is the way they are.' This child is not representing anything, it's just the way he sees it."

According to Gabbard, after the age of 3, this kind of thinking develops into the pretend mode, where the child's idea or experience is representational rather than a direct reflection of reality. He cited an example of a 5-year-old boy who says to his 7-year-old sister, "Let's play mommy and baby. You'll be the mommy and I'll be the baby." In normal development, the child knows that the 7-year-old sister is not mommy, but a representation of mom. He also knows that he's not baby, but a representation of baby, Gabbard said.

A borderline patient, on the other hand, has great difficulty with mentalizing and reflective powers, Gabbard explained. Just as the child before age 3, they are stuck developmentally, and may comment to their therapist, "You are exactly like my father." In normal development, however, Gabbard noted that "reflective functions contain both self-reflective and interpersonal components. That ideally provides the individual with a well-developed capacity to distinguish inner from outer reality, pretend mode from real mode of functioning, [and] interpersonal mental and emotional processes from interpersonal communications."

According to Gabbard, recent studies show that traumatized children who can maintain mentalization or reflective functions and process it with a neutral adult have a much better chance of coming out of the trauma without serious scarring. "You always see these amazing kids who have been abused pretty thoroughly," he said, "and yet they're fairly healthy because somehow they've been able to appreciate what happened and why."

As a result, Gabbard will often ask a borderline patient, "How did you imagine that I felt when you were suicidal and didn't show up at your session?" Or, "How did you imagine I felt when I was sitting in my office wondering where you were and if you had hurt yourself?" By doing this, he said, patients can start developing fantasies about how other people think.

"If I want to get the child or adult to move from this kind of psychic equivalence mode to a pretend mode, I can't just copy the patient's internal state, I have to offer a reflection about them," said Gabbard. For instance, in his practice, Gabbard observes the patient, then tells them, "this is what I see going on." Thus, he explained, the therapist can gradually help the patient learn that mental experience involves representations that can be played with and ultimately altered.

Clarifying the Picture: A Vignette

Gabbard illustrated this by discussing a former patient he considers one of his most difficult: a 29-year-old chronically suicidal woman who is an incest survivor with borderline personality disorder. "She was difficult," Gabbard explained, "because she would show up [to the session], and then she wouldn't want to talk. She'd only sit there and say, 'I just feel terrible about this.'"

Searching for a breakthrough, Gabbard asked the woman if she could draw what she was thinking. After being presented with a large pad of paper and colored pencils, she promptly drew herself in a cemetery, six feet underground. Gabbard then asked the woman if he could be allowed to draw something into her picture. She agreed, and he drew in the woman's 5-year-old son, standing beside the tombstone.